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Processes vary in the way systems start.

This article provides a well written overview:

How-To Geek: Why Linux’s systemd Is Still Divisive After All These Years.


BIOS -> Bootloader ->
6 Stages of Linux Boot Process (Startup Sequence)


Linux startup process - Wikipedia
Unified Extensible Firmware Interface - Wikipedia

Kernel & Services

Eventually the kernel is running and services are started
Linux kernel - Wikipedia
Operating system service management - Wikipedia
systemd - Wikipedia
systemd/systemd: The systemd System and Service Manager
System D - Wikipedia
linux startup sequence - Google Search
modern linux boot process - Google Search